The volume has had an interesting history, and its provenance can be traced in part from inscriptions added to the calendar, including the dedication of the church at Buckland, from which it takes its name:
|'Dedicacio eccl(esi)e de Buc[la]nd'|
The manuscript was first catalogued in 1885, and by that time some leaves were already missing. The one remaining historiated initial, and several large foliate initials, are each accompanied by a full border:
|Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Don. b. 5, fol. 7r [source]|
|Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Don. b. 5, fol. 241r [source]|
The style, as well as the large dimensions, are distinctive enough to allow the identification of leaves missing from the volume. Nigel Morgan has published "Some Missing Leaves from the Buckland Missal", Bodleian Library Record, 17 (2001), pp.269–75, having recognised two leaves in the Free Library, Philadelphia:
|England, Missal leaf-headed by the initial T with sacrifice of Isaac.|
Borders in color and gold, early 14th century, ink on vellum, 16 x 11 in.,
Toledo Museum of Art, 1923.3204. Reproduced by permission
I am very pleased to report that a reader of this blog recognised one of the missing leaves and acquired it for his own private collection, and has allowed me to reproduce it here:
|Private collection, recto|
|Private collection, verso|
The text introduced by the newly-disovered leaf includes the beginning of the mass for Easter ('Resurrexi et adhuc tecum sum ...'); it therefore belongs between fols. 163 and 164 of the Bodleian volume:
|Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Don. b. 5, fols. 163v-164r|
Noted Missal, Use of Sarum ('The Buckland Missal')
England; 14th century, c. 1360–80
Parchment, water-damaged at the beginning.
The leaves c. 420 × 290 mm.; fol. 329 is a 15th-century supply leaf c. 305 × 225 mm.
ii (modern parchment) + i (paper) + 400 + ii (modern parchment) leaves.
Foliated in modern pencil: i-iii, 1-402.
Mostly in quires of 12 leaves; some leaves missing: i6 (fols. 16) | ii–xiii12 (fols. 7–150), xiv12-3 (5th leaf missing, after fol. 154; 8th & 9th leaves missing after fol. 156) (fols. 151–159), xv12-1(5th leaf missing, after fol. 163: now in a Private Collection) (fols. 160–170), xvi12 (fols. 171–182), xvii12-1 (8th leaf missing, after fol. 189) (fols. 183–193), xviii12-1 (3rd leaf missing, after fol. 195) (fols. 194–204), xix–xxi12 (fols. 205–240) | xxii–xxv12 (fols. 241–288) xxvi8 (fols. 289–296), xxvii12-1 (1st leaf missing) (fols. 297–307), xxviii12 (fols. 308–319) xxix12+1 (extra leaf tipped in, fol. 329) (fols. 320–332) xxx–xxxi12 (fols. 333–356) | xxxii12-2 (7th & 8th leaves excised, stubs visible after fol. 362) (fols. 357–366) xxxiii–xxxiv12 (fols. 367–390), xxxv12-2 (11th & 12th leaves missing, after fol. 400) (fols. 391–400); up to three sets of leaf signatures visible on a single leaf: quires ii–xxi signed a–u, and xxii–xxx a–i.
Ruled in pale brown ink with 40 lines per page in 2 columns, with single vertical bounding lines extending the full height of the page; the ruled space c. 295 × 185 mm.; each column c.80–5 mm. wide.; prickings frequently survive in the lower margin.
Written in a fine gothic liturgical script with 39 lines per page, below top line. Headings in red.
Bound in burgundy morocco over thick pasteboards by W. H. Smith; lightly tooled in blind and gild around the edges; signed with an oval gilt stamp on the lower turn-in of the lower board: 'WHS'; the spine with more elaborate blind and gilt tooling, with five raised bands, plus raised endbands, lettered in gilt 'MISSALE | SARISBURIENSE | MS. | OLIM AD ECCLES. PAROCH. | DE BUCKLAND PERTINENS'.
Sec.fol.: 'KL Primus mandantem' (Calendar); 'A(ntiphona) Asperges' (Text, fol. 8).
- (fols. 1r-6v) Calendar; entries alternately in red or purple ink; major feasts in gold, some graded 'duplex festum'; numerous references to natural and liturgical seasons; each month headed by the usual verses ('Prima dies mensis; et septima trunctat ut ensis' etc.), and a note on the length of the calendar and lunar month, and with a note on the length of the day and night at the bottom; at or near the bottom of each page are two short lists of feasts headed respectively 'omnio[/a] tenenda' and 'ab operibus feminarum'; various notes and obits were added in the 14th and 15th centuries (see under Provenance).
- (fols. 7r-8v) Blessing of Holy Water: 'Omnibus dominicis diebus per annum post primam et capitulum fiat benediccio salis et aque ad gradum chori ... Exorzizo ...'; Antiphons, responsories, and rubrics for the procession are given throughout the volume, before Mass.
- (fols. 9r-143v) Temporale; with litanies (fols. 142v-143v), and the Baptismal rite on Holy Saturday (fols. 143v-149r).
- (fols. 149r-150r) Order of the Mass.
- (fol. 150r-v) Intonations of the Gloria.
- (fols. 150v-153r) Tones of the lessons.
- (fols. 153v-237r) Prefaces, noted.
- (fols. 237r-240v) Common of the Dedication.
- (fols. 241r-325r) Sanctorale; at fol. 271r is a marginal note 'festum sancte Anne matris mariae. Require in fine libri' (feast established in 1383); the feast of the Visitation, established in 1389 is absent (added to the calendar by a later hand).
- (fols. 325r-337r) Votive Masses.
- (fols. 337r-340r) Marriage service and Mass.
- (fol. 340r-344v) Ritual of Last Sacraments, with litany (fols. 341v-342v)
- (fols. 344v-351r) Commendation and Masses of the Dead.
- (fols. 351r-353r) Burial service.
- (fols. 353r-355r) General rubrics and music for processions.
- (fol. 355r-v) Tonale for the Litany.
- (fols. 355v-356v) Intonations for the Kyriale.
- (fols. 357r-365r) Kyriale, containing:
- (fols. 357r-358r) Easter chants.
- (fols. 358r-359r) Credo.
- (fols. 359r-360r) Te deum.
- (fols. 360r-363r) Troped kyries.
- (fols. 363r-365r) Gloria.
- (fols. 365r-397r) Proser.
- (fols. 397r-399r) Sanctus and Agnus dei melodies.
- (fols. 399r-400v) Other proses; ending imperfect.
One six-line historiated initial:
(fol. 7r) An exorcist reading from a book on a lectern, inscribed with the opening words: 'Exorzizo te cre'[atura], blessing Holy Water held in a ladle by an assistant; an aspersory is below the lectern; extending into a four-sided border punctuated by animal and hybrid faces.
Three- to six-line initials in shades of blue, orange, purple, and rose, on a gold ground, with vine leaf foliage and animal faces, and sometimes dragons, usually extending into matching borders in three or four margins:
- (fol. 7v) Asperges.
- (fol. 9r) Temporale.
- (fol. 27r) Christmas.
- (fol. 37v) Epiphany.
- (fol. 39r) First Sunday after Epiphany.
- (fol. 59r) First Sunday in Quadragesima.
- (fol. 156r) Preface for feasts of the Virgin.
- (fol. 158r) General preface.
- (fol. 186r) Ascension.
- (fol. 197v) Easter Monday.
- (fol. 241r) Sanctorale.
- (fol. 250r) Purification of the Virgin (2 Feb.).
- (fol. 263r) Annunciation to the Virgin (25 Mar.)
- (fol. 279r) Assumption of the Virgin (15 Aug.)
- (fol. 282v) Nativity of the Virgin (8 Sept.).
- Written and illuminated in England, 14th century; the original calendar includes the feast of St. Anne, while that of the Visitation is added, and both are absent from the Sanctorale; those of St. Winifred, St. Chad, and St. David are absent; Pächt & Alexander suggest a date of c.1370-80, Morgan suggests c.1360-80.
- Probably at Adderbury, Oxfordshire, in the late 14th century, when the dedication of St. Mary's church was added to the calendar: 'Dedicatio ecclesie Sancte Marie de Eadb(er)b(ur)y' (1 Dec.). It is likely that, as a surname, Abberbury is a variant spelling of the Eadburbury, and that it is therefore perhaps relevant that Sir Richard Abberbury, chamberlain to Queen Anne, was granted the manor of Carswell, in Buckland (cf. below), in 1383 (see William Page, P. H. Ditchfield, and John Hautenville Cope, eds., The Victoria County History of Berkshire (5 vols., London, 1924), IV, pp. 91, 456).
- Probably at St. Mary's church, Buckland, Berkshire, in the 15th century, when its dedication was added to the calendar: 'Dedicatio ecclesie de Bucland' (4 July), and other additions were made to the calendar, including obits and records of gifts to the church, of William Nowell(?), Richard Holcot (d. 1465, according to a tablet still in the church) of Buckland, and John Pyrle (these and other entries are summarised in Hewlett et al., 1885). For St. Mary's, Buckland, and Richard Holcot, see Page et al., op. cit., IV, pp. 457-60):
- (i) 'Wylliam [N?]owell [ ... ...]a de bukland ab iconomis ecclesie que dedit vnam vac[... ...]la | dominicali etiam xiiijd annuali in perpetuum' (12 Jan.).
- 'obitus Ricardi holcot perpetuo tenenda in(?) ecclesia de bukland \ab iconomis ecclesie/ et ecciam rotule domincali | annuatam(??) in perpetuum xijd et clerico per pulsacionis p(ost?) aue(?) et seruicia pulsato | [...] xiiijd qu[...] dedit [...] s ac condicione et prouide[..] xijd | vicarius legere et orat[..]e [..] in(?) rotulam predictam' (15 Jan.).
- 'Obitus iohannis pyrle [or 'pyrk'?] semper tenend' per yconomis de bokland que dedit vnam vaccam ecclesie predicte | sunt(?) predict' condicio' et unam de a[nn?...] xiii qu[...]t custodi[...] pred[...] [...]a(n)ti vicari[.] | ecclesie predicte viii [... ... ...] [dedit?] ecclesia[m?]' (12 May).
- 'the day of ye frary chirke' (20 Nov.), i.e. of the Bonhommes of Buckland, according to van Dijk.
- Feasts of Thomas Becket were crossed out at the Reformation (fols. 32v-33r, 268r, 369r).
- Sir Robert Throckmorton, 3rd Bt. (1662-1721), or 4th Bt. (1702-91), of Buckland House, with his armorial bookplate (c. 1725), with his name below his motto: 'VIRTVS SOLA NOBILITAS'; the manor of Buckland belonged to the Throckmorton family from 1690-1910, and the present manuscript is listed in three Buckland library catalogues, as follows:
- MS. Eng. misc. b. 13, at fol. 91r ('Missale M.S. Illumin'd'); undated (but after 1781, see fol. 100r), giving the shelfmark as press B, 2nd shelf from the bottom.
- MS. Eng. misc. b. 13, fol. 6r ('Missale M.S. Illum:'); c.1788, giving its location as the 3rd from the bottom ('second shelf') in press 'D'.
- MS. Eng. misc. b. 12, fols. 35r and 65r ('Missale MS.'); 1796, where its location is again given as 'D. 3.'.
- 6. ? Sir William Throckmorton; sold in 1909, according to the 1932 Sotheby's description (see below); according to the Schoenberg database, the manuscript was offered by Quaritch, Catalogue 285 (December 1909), no.591 for £400, and Catalogue 290 (June 1910), no.145 for £425.
- John Meade Falkner (1858-1932) (on whom see DNB), honorary librarian to the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral, honorary reader in palaeography at Durham University, author of Moonfleet and other novels, and tutor to the sons of Sir Andrew Noble, including Sir John Noble (cf. below); sold at Sotheby's 12 Dec. 1932 and two following days, lot 293, bought by Quaritch for £220; with their pencilled number '11' within a box at the bottom left-hand corner of fol. i recto.
- Sir John Noble, Bt., presented to the Bodleian Library in memory of Meade Falkener, in 1933.
- S. J. P. van Dijk, Latin liturgical manuscripts and printed books: guide to an exhibition held during 1952 (Oxford, 1952), no. 27.
- S. J. P. van Dijk, Handlist of the Latin liturgical manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, I [Mass books] (Unpublished typescript, Oxford, 1957), 130.
- Otto Pächt and J. J. G. Alexander, Illuminated Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library Oxford. 3: British, Irish, and Icelandic Schools (Oxford, 1973), no. 668, pl. LXV.
- William O. Hewlett, Joseph Stevenson, et al., Historical Manuscripts Commission. Tenth Report, Appendix, Part IV. The Manuscripts of the Earl of Westmorland, ... and others (London, 1885), p. 169:
- J. W. Legg, ed., The Sarum Missal (Oxford, 1916), p. vii.
- Sotheby & Co., Catalogue of the well-known collection of fine illuminated and other manuscripts ... formed by the late John Meade Falkner, Esq., M.A., ... sold by his testamentary direction ... 12 December 1932 and two following days (London, 1932), lot 293, with large folding plate.
- C. W. W, 'Catholic books in the Falkner collection', The Tablet (26 November 1932), pp. 689-90, at 690.
- John Rory Fletcher, 'The Buckland Missals', The Tablet (3 December 1932), p. 724.
- Bodleian Library, 'Gifts and purchases: donations', Friends of the Bodleian (1933), pp. 9-16, at 15 and pl. IV
- Edmund Craster, History of the Bodleian Library 1845-1945 (Oxford, 1952, repr. 1981), p. 296.
- N. R. Ker, ed., Medieval libraries of Great Britain: a list of surviving books, 2nd edn. (Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks, 3: London, 1964), p. 219.
- Lynda Dennison, ''The Fitzwarin Psalter and its allies': a reappraisal', in England in the fourteenth century: proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton Symposium ed. W. M. Ormrod (Woodbridge, 1986), pp. 42-66, at 62 n. 105.
Correspondence concerning the manuscript, between Meade Falkner and Christopher Wordsworth, can be found in MS. Eng. lett. d. 291, fols. 2-3, etc.