Saturday, 5 December 2015

Another Leaf from the Buckland Missal

In a previous post I mentioned that I have an interest in manuscripts from the Throckmorton library. This interest dates from the late 1990s, when I catalogued the Bodleian Library's Buckland Missal (MS. Don. b. 5; description below), which they had owned, and included a selection of images of it on what was, at the time, a fairly early example of a considerable body of digitized manuscript images online. You may, without being aware of it, be familiar with the Missal's only remaining historiated initial: it depicts the blessing of salt and water, and is used on the homepage of Chadwyck Healey's Patrologia Latina:

The volume has had an interesting history, and its provenance can be traced in part from inscriptions added to the calendar, including the dedication of the church at Buckland, from which it takes its name:
'Dedicacio eccl(esi)e de Buc[la]nd'
Until the mid-18th century, when they built a new house nearby, the Throckmortons lived at Buckland Manor:
which stands just a few yards from the church, St Mary's:
in the village of Buckland, about 15 miles south-west of Oxford:

The manuscript was first catalogued in 1885, and by that time some leaves were already missing. The one remaining historiated initial, and several large foliate initials, are each accompanied by a full border:
Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Don. b. 5, fol. 7r [source]
Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Don. b. 5, fol. 241r [source]
As in the detail above, the borders often have a distinctive dragon-hybrid, sometimes with a lion's face:

The style, as well as the large dimensions, are distinctive enough to allow the identification of leaves missing from the volume. Nigel Morgan has published "Some Missing Leaves from the Buckland Missal", Bodleian Library Record, 17 (2001), pp.269­75, having recognised two leaves in the Free Library, Philadelphia:
and another, with an historiated initial on the 'Te igitur' page, now at the Museum of Art, Toledo:
England, Missal leaf-headed by the initial T with sacrifice of Isaac.
Borders in color and gold, early 14th century, ink on vellum, 16 x 11 in.,
Toledo Museum of Art, 1923.3204. Reproduced by permission
Morgan calculates that nine leaves are missing from the Bodleian volume [according to my collation -- see below -- there are probably at least two more leaves missing at the very end of the volume], and ends his article by commenting "It is to be hoped that some of the remaining six lost leaves of the Missal will eventually come to light in other collections."

I am very pleased to report that a reader of this blog recognised one of the missing leaves and acquired it for his own private collection, and has allowed me to reproduce it here:
Private collection, recto
Private collection, verso
Recto, detail
The animal-heads and leaf-forms which fill the initial are very similar to some of those in the Toledo leaf:
and one of the Philadelphia leaves:

The text introduced by the newly-disovered leaf includes the beginning of the mass for Easter ('Resurrexi et adhuc tecum sum ...'); it therefore belongs between fols. 163 and 164 of the Bodleian volume:
Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Don. b. 5, fols. 163v-164r 
The text on fol. 163v ends: "... ad lapidis posicionem quare non ||"; it continues on the newly identified leaf "|| servabant petrem iusticie ... Pascha nostrum immo||"; and continues again on fol. 164r "||latus est christus alleluya ...". The equivalent texts can be found in Legg, The Sarum Missal, 1916, pp.135-36.

Noted Missal, Use of Sarum ('The Buckland Missal')
England; 14th century, c. 136080

Physical description
Parchment, water-damaged at the beginning.
The leaves c. 420 × 290 mm.; fol. 329 is a 15th-century supply leaf c. 305 × 225 mm.
ii (modern parchment) + i (paper) + 400 + ii (modern parchment) leaves.
Foliated in modern pencil: i-iii, 1-402.
Mostly in quires of 12 leaves; some leaves missing: i6 (fols. 16) | iixiii12 (fols. 7150), xiv12-3 (5th leaf missing, after fol. 154; 8th & 9th leaves missing after fol. 156) (fols. 151159), xv12-1(5th leaf missing, after fol. 163: now in a Private Collection) (fols. 160170), xvi12 (fols. 171182), xvii12-1 (8th leaf missing, after fol. 189) (fols. 183193), xviii12-1 (3rd leaf missing, after fol. 195) (fols. 194204), xixxxi12 (fols. 205240) | xxiixxv12 (fols. 241288) xxvi8 (fols. 289296), xxvii12-1 (1st leaf missing) (fols. 297307), xxviii12 (fols. 308319) xxix12+1 (extra leaf tipped in, fol. 329) (fols. 320332) xxxxxxi12 (fols. 333356) | xxxii12-2 (7th & 8th leaves excised, stubs visible after fol. 362) (fols. 357366) xxxiiixxxiv12 (fols. 367390), xxxv12-2 (11th & 12th leaves missing, after fol. 400) (fols. 391400); up to three sets of leaf signatures visible on a single leaf: quires iixxi signed au, and xxiixxx ai.
Ruled in pale brown ink with 40 lines per page in 2 columns, with single vertical bounding lines extending the full height of the page; the ruled space c. 295 × 185 mm.; each column c.805 mm. wide.; prickings frequently survive in the lower margin.
Written in a fine gothic liturgical script with 39 lines per page, below top line. Headings in red.
Bound in burgundy morocco over thick pasteboards by W. H. Smith; lightly tooled in blind and gild around the edges; signed with an oval gilt stamp on the lower turn-in of the lower board: 'WHS'; the spine with more elaborate blind and gilt tooling, with five raised bands, plus raised endbands, lettered in gilt 'MISSALE | SARISBURIENSE | MS. | OLIM AD ECCLES. PAROCH. | DE BUCKLAND PERTINENS'.
Sec.fol.: 'KL Primus mandantem' (Calendar); 'A(ntiphona) Asperges' (Text, fol. 8).

  1. (fols. 1r-6v) Calendar; entries alternately in red or purple ink; major feasts in gold, some graded 'duplex festum'; numerous references to natural and liturgical seasons; each month headed by the usual verses ('Prima dies mensis; et septima trunctat ut ensis' etc.), and a note on the length of the calendar and lunar month, and with a note on the length of the day and night at the bottom; at or near the bottom of each page are two short lists of feasts headed respectively 'omnio[/a] tenenda' and 'ab operibus feminarum'; various notes and obits were added in the 14th and 15th centuries (see under Provenance).
  2. (fols. 7r-8v) Blessing of Holy Water: 'Omnibus dominicis diebus per annum post primam et capitulum fiat benediccio salis et aque ad gradum chori ... Exorzizo ...'; Antiphons, responsories, and rubrics for the procession are given throughout the volume, before Mass.
  3. (fols. 9r-143v) Temporale; with litanies (fols. 142v-143v), and the Baptismal rite on Holy Saturday (fols. 143v-149r).
  4. (fols. 149r-150r) Order of the Mass.
  5. (fol. 150r-v) Intonations of the Gloria.
  6. (fols. 150v-153r) Tones of the lessons.
  7. (fols. 153v-237r) Prefaces, noted.
  8. (fols. 237r-240v) Common of the Dedication.
  9. (fols. 241r-325r) Sanctorale; at fol. 271r is a marginal note 'festum sancte Anne matris mariae. Require in fine libri' (feast established in 1383); the feast of the Visitation, established in 1389 is absent (added to the calendar by a later hand).
  10. (fols. 325r-337r) Votive Masses.
  11. (fols. 337r-340r) Marriage service and Mass.
  12. (fol. 340r-344v) Ritual of Last Sacraments, with litany (fols. 341v-342v)
  13. (fols. 344v-351r) Commendation and Masses of the Dead.
  14. (fols. 351r-353r) Burial service.
  15. (fols. 353r-355r) General rubrics and music for processions.
  16. (fol. 355r-v) Tonale for the Litany.
  17. (fols. 355v-356v) Intonations for the Kyriale.
  18. (fols. 357r-365r) Kyriale, containing:
    1. (fols. 357r-358r) Easter chants.
    2. (fols. 358r-359r) Credo.
    3. (fols. 359r-360r) Te deum.
    4. (fols. 360r-363r) Troped kyries.
    5. (fols. 363r-365r) Gloria.
  19. (fols. 365r-397r) Proser.
  20. (fols. 397r-399r) Sanctus and Agnus dei melodies.
  21. (fols. 399r-400v) Other proses; ending imperfect.
One six-line historiated initial:
(fol. 7r) An exorcist reading from a book on a lectern, inscribed with the opening words: 'Exorzizo te cre'[atura], blessing Holy Water held in a ladle by an assistant; an aspersory is below the lectern; extending into a four-sided border punctuated by animal and hybrid faces.

Three- to six-line initials in shades of blue, orange, purple, and rose, on a gold ground, with vine leaf foliage and animal faces, and sometimes dragons, usually extending into matching borders in three or four margins:
  • (fol. 7v) Asperges.
  • (fol. 9r) Temporale.
  • (fol. 27r) Christmas.
  • (fol. 37v) Epiphany.
  • (fol. 39r) First Sunday after Epiphany.
  • (fol. 59r) First Sunday in Quadragesima.
  • (fol. 156r) Preface for feasts of the Virgin.
  • (fol. 158r) General preface.
  • (fol. 186r) Ascension.
  • (fol. 197v) Easter Monday.
  • (fol. 241r) Sanctorale.
  • (fol. 250r) Purification of the Virgin (2 Feb.).
  • (fol. 263r) Annunciation to the Virgin (25 Mar.)
  • (fol. 279r) Assumption of the Virgin (15 Aug.)
  • (fol. 282v) Nativity of the Virgin (8 Sept.).
Three-line initials similar to the large ones; two-line initials alternately blue with red penwork, or burgundy with purple penwork, the penwork often forming foliage, faces, etc.; cadells often with human faces in profile, etc.

  1. Written and illuminated in England, 14th century; the original calendar includes the feast of St. Anne, while that of the Visitation is added, and both are absent from the Sanctorale; those of St. Winifred, St. Chad, and St. David are absent; Pächt & Alexander suggest a date of c.1370-80, Morgan suggests c.1360-80.
  2. Probably at Adderbury, Oxfordshire, in the late 14th century, when the dedication of St. Mary's church was added to the calendar: 'Dedicatio ecclesie Sancte Marie de Eadb(er)b(ur)y' (1 Dec.). It is likely that, as a surname, Abberbury is a variant spelling of the Eadburbury, and that it is therefore perhaps relevant that Sir Richard Abberbury, chamberlain to Queen Anne, was granted the manor of Carswell, in Buckland (cf. below), in 1383 (see William Page, P. H. Ditchfield, and John Hautenville Cope, eds., The Victoria County History of Berkshire (5 vols., London, 1924), IV, pp. 91, 456).
  3. Probably at St. Mary's church, Buckland, Berkshire, in the 15th century, when its dedication was added to the calendar: 'Dedicatio ecclesie de Bucland' (4 July), and other additions were made to the calendar, including obits and records of gifts to the church, of William Nowell(?), Richard Holcot (d. 1465, according to a tablet still in the church) of Buckland, and John Pyrle (these and other entries are summarised in Hewlett et al., 1885). For St. Mary's, Buckland, and Richard Holcot, see Page et al., op. cit., IV, pp. 457-60):
    1. (i) 'Wylliam [N?]owell [ ... ...]a de bukland ab iconomis ecclesie que dedit vnam vac[... ...]la | dominicali etiam xiiijd annuali in perpetuum' (12 Jan.).
    2. 'obitus Ricardi holcot perpetuo tenenda in(?) ecclesia de bukland \ab iconomis ecclesie/ et ecciam rotule domincali | annuatam(??) in perpetuum xijd et clerico per pulsacionis p(ost?) aue(?) et seruicia pulsato | [...] xiiijd qu[...] dedit [...] s ac condicione et prouide[..] xijd | vicarius legere et orat[..]e [..] in(?) rotulam predictam' (15 Jan.).
    3. 'Obitus iohannis pyrle [or 'pyrk'?] semper tenend' per yconomis de bokland que dedit vnam vaccam ecclesie predicte | sunt(?) predict' condicio' et unam de a[nn?...] xiii qu[...]t custodi[...] pred[...] [...]a(n)ti vicari[.] | ecclesie predicte viii [... ... ...] [dedit?] ecclesia[m?]' (12 May).
    4. 'the day of ye frary chirke' (20 Nov.), i.e. of the Bonhommes of Buckland, according to van Dijk.
  4. Feasts of Thomas Becket were crossed out at the Reformation (fols. 32v-33r, 268r, 369r).
  5. Sir Robert Throckmorton, 3rd Bt. (1662-1721), or 4th Bt. (1702-91), of Buckland House, with his armorial bookplate (c. 1725), with his name below his motto: 'VIRTVS SOLA NOBILITAS'; the manor of Buckland belonged to the Throckmorton family from 1690-1910, and the present manuscript is listed in three Buckland library catalogues, as follows:
    1. MS. Eng. misc. b. 13, at fol. 91r ('Missale M.S. Illumin'd'); undated (but after 1781, see fol. 100r), giving the shelfmark as press B, 2nd shelf from the bottom.
    2. MS. Eng. misc. b. 13, fol. 6r ('Missale M.S. Illum:'); c.1788, giving its location as the 3rd from the bottom ('second shelf') in press 'D'.
    3. MS. Eng. misc. b. 12, fols. 35r and 65r ('Missale MS.'); 1796, where its location is again given as 'D. 3.'.
  6. 6. ? Sir William Throckmorton; sold in 1909, according to the 1932 Sotheby's description (see below); according to the Schoenberg database, the manuscript was offered by Quaritch, Catalogue 285 (December 1909), no.591 for £400, and Catalogue 290 (June 1910), no.145 for £425.
  7. John Meade Falkner (1858-1932) (on whom see DNB), honorary librarian to the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral, honorary reader in palaeography at Durham University, author of Moonfleet and other novels, and tutor to the sons of Sir Andrew Noble, including Sir John Noble (cf. below); sold at Sotheby's 12 Dec. 1932 and two following days, lot 293, bought by Quaritch for £220; with their pencilled number '11' within a box at the bottom left-hand corner of fol. i recto.
  8. Sir John Noble, Bt., presented to the Bodleian Library in memory of Meade Falkener, in 1933.
Bodleian Library catalogue descriptions
  • S. J. P. van Dijk, Latin liturgical manuscripts and printed books: guide to an exhibition held during 1952 (Oxford, 1952), no. 27. 
  • S. J. P. van Dijk, Handlist of the Latin liturgical manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, I [Mass books] (Unpublished typescript, Oxford, 1957), 130. 
  • Otto Pächt and J. J. G. Alexander, Illuminated Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library Oxford. 3: British, Irish, and Icelandic Schools (Oxford, 1973), no. 668, pl. LXV.
Other bibliography
  • William O. Hewlett, Joseph Stevenson, et al., Historical Manuscripts Commission. Tenth Report, Appendix, Part IV. The Manuscripts of the Earl of Westmorland, ... and others (London, 1885), p. 169:
  • J. W. Legg, ed., The Sarum Missal (Oxford, 1916), p. vii.
  • Sotheby & Co., Catalogue of the well-known collection of fine illuminated and other manuscripts ... formed by the late John Meade Falkner, Esq., M.A., ... sold by his testamentary direction ... 12 December 1932 and two following days (London, 1932), lot 293, with large folding plate. 
  • C. W. W, 'Catholic books in the Falkner collection', The Tablet (26 November 1932), pp. 689-90, at 690. 
  • John Rory Fletcher, 'The Buckland Missals', The Tablet (3 December 1932), p. 724. 
  • Bodleian Library, 'Gifts and purchases: donations', Friends of the Bodleian (1933), pp. 9-16, at 15 and pl. IV 
  • Edmund Craster, History of the Bodleian Library 1845-1945 (Oxford, 1952, repr. 1981), p. 296.
  • N. R. Ker, ed., Medieval libraries of Great Britain: a list of surviving books, 2nd edn. (Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks, 3: London, 1964), p. 219. 
  • Lynda Dennison, ''The Fitzwarin Psalter and its allies': a reappraisal', in England in the fourteenth century: proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton Symposium ed. W. M. Ormrod (Woodbridge, 1986), pp. 42-66, at 62 n. 105.
Related material
Correspondence concerning the manuscript, between Meade Falkner and Christopher Wordsworth, can be found in MS. Eng. lett. d. 291, fols. 2-3, etc.

1 comment:

  1. Richard Pfaff in 'The Liturgy in Medieval England : A History'makes the suggestion that the 'Buckland Missal' may have come to Adderbury as a result of William of Wykeham , the founder of New College Oxford , having given the patronage of Adderbury to New College in 1381 . He further speculates that it may originally have been intended for New College itself . The parish church at Adderbury is an unusually grand one with much fine 14th century sculpture .

    The illuminator of the Philadelphia leaves may be a second artist working in a similar style ?



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