Saturday, 24 May 2014

A Thérouanne Book of Hours at Occidental

Occidental College has a very interesting and unusual Book of Hours, one of whose features is a unique(?) image of its patron saying the rosary.
 I provide a fairly detailed textual and iconographic descriptions below, but first the known details of its provenance.

The most notable saints in the calendar are:
  • 13 Jan. Firmin (translation, celebrated at Amiens)
  • 7 (sic) Feb. Rictrude (abbess of Marchiennes, also venerated at Cambrai)
  • 3 March. "Waloy"
  • 4 March (usually 19 Oct.). Ethbin
  • 8 March. Homfroy, bishop of Thérouanne
  • 20 March. Homfroy (presumably the same man)
  • 30 March. Ricule (Regulus)
  • 6 April. Acarius (presumably Acharius, bishop of Noyon and Tournai -- usually 27 Nov.)
  • 26 April. Riquier (St-Riquier)
  • 15 July. Vedast, bishop of Arras and Cambrai (also on 1 Oct.)
  • 9 Sept. Omer (alias Audomar), bishop of Thérouanne
  • 25 Sept. Firmin (his decapitation, celebrated at Amiens)
  • 15 Oct. "Oulfren" (Wulfram, translation; relics at Abbéville)
  • 6 Nov. Winnoc, abbot of Wormhout
The spread of their main region of veneration suggest the area around Thérouanne:

The Antiphons and Capitula at Prime and None in the Hours of the Virgin are:
  • Prime
    • Ant.: O admirabile
    • Cap.: Hec est virgo
  • None
    • Ant.: Germinavit
    • Cap.: Per te dei
which is consistent with Thérouanne Use, but also other places. The full details for identifying the use are here.

The Office of the Dead seems to pin the book definitively to Thérouanne; Ottosen (p.188) lists only four manuscripts with the same series of responses, all of them attributed to Thérouanne. The lessons, responses and antiphons, are:
  1. Parce
    1. Qui Lazarum
    2. Requiem
  2. Tedet
    1. Credo quod
    2. Quem visurus
  3. Manus
    1. Heu mihi
    2. Anima mea
  4. Responde
    1. Ne recorderis
    2. Dirige domine
  5. Homo
    1. Domine quando
    2. Commissa
  6. Quis mihi
    1. Peccantem
    2. De profundis
  7. Spiritus
    1. Requiem
    2. Qui Lazarum
  8. Pelli
    1. Ne tradas
    2. Nichil proficiat
  9. Milicia est vita
    1. Libera me ... morte
    2. Dies illa
The unusual 9th lesson "Milicia est vita" means the lessons are Ottosen's series "9b". The 8th versicle "Nichil proficiat" is the most unusual.

So, we are safe to assume that the book was made for use in the diocese of Thérouanne. Unusually, the patron is depicted two or three times; first kneeling before the Arma Christi:
(fol.172r)
then kneeling before the Virgin and Child: there is a large rosary next to him; the Christ Child holds a smaller one; and the Virgin holds a rose:
(fol.216r)
and it is presumably him again kneeling before, and being blessed by, St Peter Martyr:
(fol.238r)
I have found nothing else about the book's whereabouts until the 20th century (except that it was probably in England in the 19th century, when it received its binding, with "MISSAL" in gilt on the spine); a search of the Schoenberg database produces one relevant hit: the book was sold at Sotheby's, 19 May 1959, lot 66:

As some of the images, and many of the prayers, are unusual, it will be worth describing them in some detail. The main textual contents are:
  • (fols.3r-13v) Calendar, in French (lacking the leaf for May)
  • (fols.14r-15r) Blank, except for marks left by sewn-in pilgrim badges
  • (fols.16r-56r) Hours of the Virgin
  • (fols.56v-57v) Added prayers
  • (fols.59r-62r) Hours of the Cross
  • (fols.64r-67r) Hours of the Spirit
  • (fols.69r-79v) The Seven Penitential Psalms
  • (fols.79v-85r) Litany, petitions, three collects
  • (fols.87r-127v) Office of the Dead
  • (fols.128r-142r) Suffrages to the Trinity, Angels, and saints John the Baptist, Peter & Paul, Andrew, John the Evangelist, All Apostles, Sebastian, Christopher, Quentin, Blaise, Adrian, All Martyrs, Nicholas, Hubert, Anthony, All Confessors, Mary Magdalene, Katherine, Barbara, the 11,000 Virgins, All Virgins, All Saints, the Cross, and for Peace (fol.142v is blank)
  • (fols.143r-150r) Prayers, many with indulgences:
    • (fol.143r) "... le pape Benedic VIII ... remission de tous pechies. Domine Ihesu Christe qui voluisti pro redemptione mundi ..."
    • (fol.144r) "Anima Christi sanctifica me, corpus Christi salva me ..."
    • (fol.144v) "... le pape Benedic de l'ordre de Citeaulx ... autant de iours de pardon ... estimees au nombre de 5320. Precor te piissime domine Ihesu Christe ..."
    • (fol.146r) "... le pape Boniface VI ... 2000 ans de pardon ... Domine Ihesu Christe qui hanc sacratissima carnem ..."
    • (fol.147r) "... 250 iours de vray pardon de ... le pape Innocent ... Ave domine Ihesu Christe, verbun patris, filius virginis, agnus dei, salus mundi ..."
    • (fol.147v) "Domine Ihesu Christe propter illam amaritudinem mortis ..."
    • (fol.148r) "O bone Ihesu, o piissime Ihesu, O dulcissime Ihesu ..."
    • (fol.150r) "Les VIII vers sainct Bernard. Illumina oculos meos ..."(fol.151v is blank)
  • (fols.152r-171r) Contemporary added prayers:
    • (fol.152r) "[O] intemerata ... orbis terrarum. Inclina ... ego peccator ..."
    • (fol.154v) "... le pape Boniface VIII ... absolz de paine et de coulpe. Stabat mater iuxta Christi crucem ..."
    • (fol.155v) "Le pape Lyon ... 300 iours de Indulgence. Benedicta sit hora in qua deus & homo natus est ..."
    • (fol.156v) "Ey apres sensuivent les V Ioyes de la vierge Marie ... quarante iours de Indulgence. Gaude virgo mater Christi que per aurem concepisti Gabriele nuncio ..."
    • (fol. 169v) Obsecro te; (fol.171v is bank)
  • Prayers:
    • (fol.172r) "Salve crux precioso (sic) Christi domini corpore decorata ..." (apparently a rare prayer, also found in a 12th-century Cambrai MS; see Leroquais, Psautiers, no.99)
    • (fol.175r) "Oroison de la sainte trinitet. (sic) Beaux doulz dieu peres, Saincte Trinite et ung dieu ..."
    • (fol.181r) "Ayde moy saincte trinite, Unne (sic) glore (sic) unne maieste, ..." (Sonet, no.49)
  • (fols. 185r-190v; rubric on fol.184r) Hours of the Cross, in French: "Cy apres sensuieuent les heurez de le crois en franchois. Premiers. Doulch pieu dieu en honneur de vostre doulce passion ..."
  • (fol.191r-193v) "El (sic) nom de la saincte trinite dieu et en le presence de vo corpz ..."
  • (fols.194r-195r) "Biaux sire dieu qui des chieux descendis ..."
  • (fols.196r-248v) Suffrages:
    • (fol.196r) Holy Face. "Salve sancta facies ..."
    • (fol.197r) Trinity. "Gaude virgo mater Christi ..."
    • (fol.200r) Virgin. "Doulce dame de misericorde ..."
    • (fol.209r) Virgin. "Tu fis de Ihesus la portee quand de l'angele fu salvee ..."
    • (fol.216r) Virgin. "Glorieuse vierge Marie a toy me rench (sic) et si te prie ..." (Sonet, no.675)
    • (fol.218r) Anne. "Anna parens sublimis glorie mater matris minsericordie ..."
    • (fol.220r) Michael. "Sancte Michael mirabilis adiutor populi dei ..."
    • (fol.***v) Gabriel. "Missus est angelus Gabriel a deo ..."
    • (fol.225r) Maragret. "Gaude sacra Margareta que meritis grege leta ..."
    • (fol.228r) Barbara. "Gaude Barbara serena virgo patris quem effrena ..." (Blume & Dreves, Anal.Hymn., XXIX, p.97 no.181)
    • (fol.230r) John the Baptist. "Gaude vates nuntiatus redderis gratis mundum natus ..."
    • (fol.232r) George. "Fideles hic attendite Christi sanctum diligite ..." (Chevalier, Rep.Hymn., I, p.376, no.2693)
    • (fol234r) Christopher. "Beatus vir qui super eius humeros verum deitavit filium ..."
    • (fol.236r) Nicholas. "Copiose caritatis Nicholae pontifex ..."
    • (fol.238r) Peter Martyr. "Ad sancti Petri tumulum frequens lux descendit ..."
    • (fol.240r) Gregory. "O admirabile beati Gregorii ..."
    • (fol.242r) Adrian. "Ave sancte Adriane qui martyrum immane passus est ..." (Rep.Hymn., I, p.124, no.2106)
    • (fol.244r) Sebastian "Glorieux sainct Sebastien martir du roy celestiien ..." (Rézeau, Prères aux saints, II, p.460-61 no.200)
    • (fol.246r) Anthony. "Vox de celo ad Anthonium facta est ..."
    • (fol.248r-v) Giles. "Fidelis servus et prudens quem constituit dominus ..."
Miniatures mark the major sections of the volume, alternating between full-colour and grisaille or semi-grisaille (those in italics are in grisaille or semi-grisaille):
  • (fol.15v) Annunciation
  • (fol.58v) Crucifixion
  • (fol.63v) Pentecost
  • (fol.68v) David in Penitence
  • (fol.172r) Patron kneeling before the Arma Christi
  • (fol.175r) Trinity
  • (fol.181r) Christ blessing a cross-topped orb
  • (fol.185r) The Betrayal
  • (fol.191r) Nativity
  • (fol.194r) The Virgin Mary and John the Baptist in a landscape, God above
  • (fol.196r) St Veronica
  • (fol.197r) The Coronation of the Virgin by the Trinity
  • (fol.200r) The Coronation of the Virgin by angels
  • (fol.209r) The Visitation
  • (fol.216r) The Patron kneeling at a prie-dieu before the Virgin and Child
  • (fol.218r) St Anne, with the Virgin and Child
  • (fol.220r) St Michael
  • (fol.222v) The Annunciation
  • (fol.225r) St Margaret
  • (fol.228r) St Barbara
  • (fol.230r) St John the Baptist
  • (fol.232r) St George
  • (fol.234r) St Christopher
  • (fol.236r) St Nicholas
  • (fol.238r) St Peter Martyr, blessing the patron(?)
  • (fol.240r) The Mass of St Gregory
  • (fol.242r) St Adrian
  • (fol.244r) St Sebastian
  • (fol.246r) St Anthony
  • (fol.248r) St Giles (a contemporary addition)
In sum, the book is unusual and interesting in many ways: the decorative scheme; the unususal prayers; the Hours of the Cross in French; the images of the patron, especially the one showing him reciting the Rosary. It would make a good subject for a student to research more fully.

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